A Model for Teaching Critical Reading in an ESL Curriculum


  • Ugyen Tshering University of Canberra, Australia




ESL, critical reading, four resources model, text decoder, text participant, text analyst, text user


This case study explores one Bhutanese ESL teacher’s implementation of Freebody and Luke’s (1990) four resources model (FRM) to teach critical reading (CR) in his grade-9 English classroom. A semi-structured interview was conducted with the teacher and thematically analysed to understand his initial perspectives on CR and teaching strategies. Based on his initial interview data, the researcher recommended him implementing the FRM to teach a poem of his choice from the grade-9 English curriculum in three lessons. The FRM is organised around four reader roles that engage and empower readers as text decoders, text participants, text analysts and text users. A thematic approach was used to analyse the audio recordings of the teacher’s FRM implementation and written lesson reports. The study also analysed his post-implementation interview data to examine the implications and challenges of using the FRM in ESL classrooms. The study showed that the teacher found the FRM effective and practical, allowing him to scaffold and enhance his students’ knowledge and skills to engage in various forms of meaning construction, learn and analyse language usage, critically engage with the text and promote literacy practices.

Author Biography

Ugyen Tshering, University of Canberra, Australia

Ugyen Tshering is a PhD student in the Faculty of Education, University of Canberra. He has a BA (English) from the University of Pune, India, and an MA (TESL) from Flinders University, South Australia. He was formerly a lecturer in English at Sherubtse College, Royal University of Bhutan, where he developed and taught undergraduate and postgraduate English courses. His research interests are content-based language teaching, practical English usage, reading pedagogy and teacher professional development.


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How to Cite

Tshering, U. (2023). A Model for Teaching Critical Reading in an ESL Curriculum. English Studies at NBU, 9(2), 271–292. https://doi.org/10.33919/esnbu.23.2.7



Doctoral Section