Development of ornithological tourism in the Kresna Gorge – opportunity for conservation of the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus)


  • Adelina Savova
  • Ralitza Berberova



ornithological tourism, Kresna Gorge, reintroduction, Griffon Vulture


The Kresna Gorge attracts significant scientific ornithological interest as it is situated along one of the primary bird migration routes – Via Aristotelis. In 2010, a process of reintroducing the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus) began in the area, which can now be deemed a success. However, there are still various anthropogenic factors that have a negative impact on the population’s resilience. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential for developing ornithological tourism contributing to the protection of the local population of Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus).


BALKANI Wildlife Association:

Baumgart, W., 1974. Wie steht es um Europas Geier?. Der Falke, 8, 258-267.

BirdLife International, 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. Cambridge, U.K.: BirdLife International. 374 p.

Birds in Bulgaria, Ornitologichno vazhnite mesta – Kresna [Ornithologically important places – Kresna]:

Boev N., T. Michev, 1981. Minalo i segashno razprostranenie na leshoyadite v Bulgaria [Distribution of vultures in Bulgaria in the past and now]. Sbornik na Regionalen simpozium po proekt “Ohrana na prirodnite teritorii i sadarzhashtia se v tyah genetichen fond” [Proceedings of Regional symposium “Protection of Natural territories and their genetic stock”], 65, Blagoevgrad.

BSPB, Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds:

Baykov, B., Y. Naydenov, 2011. Ekologiya v turizma [Ecology in tourism]. Sofia: ForKom

Demerdzhiev D., E. Stoynov, M. Kurtev, P. Yankov, 2007. Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus). – In: Yankov, P. (ed.). Atlas of breeding birds in Bulgaria. Bulgarian Society for the Protection of Birds, Conservation Series, Book 10. Sofia, BSPB, 134-135.

Demerdzhiev D., H. Hristov, D. Dobrev, I. Angelov and M. Kurtev, 2014. Long-term population status, breeding parameters and limiting factors of the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus Hablizl, 1783) population in the Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 66 (3), 373-384.

Dobrev D., S. Stoychev, 2013. Vulture conservation in Bulgaria, Proceedings of the Griffon vulture conference 6-8 March 2013, BirdLife Cypris, Cypris, 38-52.

Fennell D. A., 2008. Ecotourism (3th ed.), Routledge.

Fennell D. A., 2009. Ecotourism. In: R. Kitchin, N. Thrift (Eds.), International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, Elsevier BV, 372-376.

FWFF (Fund for Wild Flora and Fauna:

Green Balkans:

Green Balkans: LIFE08 NAT/BG/278

IUCN. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 1998.

IUCN/SSC. Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation, 2013.

Kordowska M., S. Kulczyk, 2015. Conditions and prospects for the development of ornitological tourism in Poland. Tourism, 24 (2), 15-21.

Michev N., Ts. Mihaylov, I. Vaptsarov, S. Kiradzhiev, 1980. Geografski rechnik na Bulgaria [Geographical Dictionary of Bulgaria]. Sofia: Science and Art, 561.

Patev, P, 1950. Ptitsite v Bulgaria [Birds in Bulgaria]. Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 364.

Primak R., Y. Uzunov, B. Georgiev, 2018. Conservation biology. Sofia: Pensoft.

Pullin А., G. Stewart, 2006. Guidelines for systematic review in environmental management, Conservation Biology, 20 (6), 1647-56.

Savova A., R. Berberova, 2021. Ecological tourism opportunities in the area of Ognyanovo Dam. Annual of Natural Sciences Department. Vol. 6, 2020-2021. 1-6. Sofia: New Bulgarian University

Seddon P. J., D. P. Armstrong, R. F. Maloney, 2007. Developing the science of reintroduction biology. Society for Conservation Biology.

Seddon, P. J, 1999. Persistence without intervention: assessing success in wildlife re-introductions, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14:503, 1999.

Simeonov, S., T. Michev, D. Nankinov, 1990. Fauna na Bulgaria. Ptitsi. Chast I [Bulgarian Fauna. Birds. Part I], Sofia: BAS, 350 p.

Spiridonov, Zh., 1987. Oazisi na divata priroda [Oases of wildlife]. Sofia: Zemizdat. 191 p.

Stoychev S., Tz. Karafeizov, 2004. Power line design and raptor protection in Bulgaria. - In: Chancellor, R. & B.-U. Meyburg (Еds.): Raptors Worldwide. Budapest: WWGBP & MME, 443-451.

Stoynov, E., 2019. Reintroduktsia na beloglavia leshoyad (Gyps fulvus) v modelni teritorii v Bulgaria [Reintroduction of Griffon Vulture (Gypsum fulvus) in model territories in Bulgaria]. Avtoreferat, Katedra „Zoologia i antropologia”, Biologicheski fakultet na Sofiyski universitet [PhD Thesis, Department of Zoology and Anthropology, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University, Sofia.], Sofia.

Stoynov Е., E. Kmetova-Biro, G. Stoyanov, H. Peshev, I. Ivanov, I. Stoev, L. Bonchev, N. Vangelova, Z. Nikolova, L. Iankov, D. Parvanov, A. Grozdanov, 2018. Population boost of the Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus (Hablizl, 1783) (Accipitridae) in Bulgaria based on reintroductions, Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, Suppl. 12, 59-65.

Sutherland W., M. Clout, I. M. Côté, P. Daszak, M. H. Depledge, L. Fellman, E. Fleishman, R. Garthwaite, D. W. Gibbons, J. De Lurio, A. J. Impey, F. Lickorish, D. Lindenmayer, J. Madgwick, C. Margerison, T. Maynard, L. S. Peck, J. Pretty, A. R. Watkinson, 2010. A horizont scan of global conservation issues for 2010, Trends in Ecology and Evolution.

Sutherland W., A. S. Pullin, P. M. Dolman, T. M. Knight, 2004. The need for evidence-based conservation, Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Vol. 19, Issue 6, 305-308.

Tewes E., M. Terrasse, J. S. Artés, W. Fremuth, H. Frey, 2004. Action plan for the recovery and conservation of vultures on the Balkan Peninsula: activities and projects during 2002 and 2003.

TIES, The International Ecotourism Society:

UNEP/TIES, Ecotourism: Principles, Practices & Policies for Sustainability:

Yankov P., L. Profirov, 1991. Savremenno sastoyanie na populatsiyata na beloglavia leshoyad (Gyps fulvus, Hablizl) v Bulgaria [Current state of the griffon vulture population (Gypsum fulvus, Hablizl) in Bulgaria]. Ekologia [Ecology], 24, 44-52.




How to Cite

Savova, A., & Berberova , R. (2022). Development of ornithological tourism in the Kresna Gorge – opportunity for conservation of the Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus). Annual of Natural Sciences Department, 7, 1–8.