English Studies at NBU http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU <p><strong>English Studies at NBU (ESNBU)</strong> is an entirely open access, double-blind peer reviewed academic journal published by the Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures, New Bulgarian University in two issues per year, June and December, in print and online. <br>ESNBU welcomes original research articles, book reviews, discussion contributions and other forms of analysis and comment encompassing all aspects of English Studies and English for professional communication and the creative professions. Manuscripts are accepted in English. Translations of published articles are generally not accepted.</p> <p>ESNBU is indexed in <a href="http://mjl.clarivate.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;ISSN=2367-5705">Web of Science</a>, <a href="http://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">CEEOL</a>, MLA,&nbsp;<a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2367-8704">DOAJ</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=488379">ERIH PLUS</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2367-5705">Crossref</a>, <a href="https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=55795">RSCI</a>&nbsp;(РИНЦ), EBSCO <a href="https://www.ebscohost.com/titleLists/e5h-coverage.htm">CEEAS</a>&nbsp;- Central &amp; Eastern European Academic Source (EBSCOhost),&nbsp;<a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2367-8704">ROAD</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=1104295822">ZDB</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://ezb.uni-regensburg.de/searchres.phtml?bibid=AAAAA&amp;colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=2367-8704">EZB</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=esnbu&amp;name=&amp;oaboost=1&amp;newsearch=1&amp;refid=dcbasen">BASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/find?keyword=English%20Studies%20at%20NBU">OpenAIRE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://idiscover.lib.cam.ac.uk/primo-explore/search?query=any,contains,2367-8704&amp;tab=online_res&amp;search_scope=SCOP_ONLINE&amp;vid=44CAM_PROD&amp;lang=en_US&amp;offset=0">iDiscover</a>,&nbsp;Brill&nbsp;<a href="https://bibliographies.brillonline.com/search?s.q=%222367-5705%22&amp;s.f.s2_parent=s.f.book.linguistic-bibliography">Linguistic Bibliography</a>, and evaluated by&nbsp;<a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/2367-5705">MIAR</a>...<a href="https://esnbu.org/">more</a></p> <p>English Studies at NBU is archived in the&nbsp;<a href="https://plus.bg.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/nbkm/1275724772">Bulgarian National Library</a>&nbsp;“St. St. Cyril and Methodius” (both print and digital full text formats),&nbsp;<a href="https://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">Central and Eastern European Online Library</a>&nbsp;(CEEOL) (digital, full text),&nbsp;<a href="https://catalog.loc.gov/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=20878817">The Library of Congress</a>&nbsp;(both print and digital),&nbsp;The British Library (both print and digital)</p> en-US <p>All published articles in the ESNBU are licensed under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0" rel="nofollow">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial</a> 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.<br><br> In other words, under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license users are free to<br> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format<br> Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material<br> <br> Under the following terms:</p> <p><img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/attrib.gif" alt=""><strong>Attribution</strong> (by) - All CC licenses require that others who use your work in any way must give you credit the way you request, but not in a way that suggests you endorse them or their use. If they want to use your work without giving you credit or for endorsement purposes, they must get your permission first.<br> <br> <img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/noncomm.gif" alt=""><strong>NonCommercial</strong> (nc) - You let others copy, distribute, display, perform, and modify and use your work for any purpose other than commercially unless they get your permission first.<br> <br> If the article is to be used for commercial purposes, we suggest authors be contacted by email.<br> <br> If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, authors will notify ESNBU at the time of submission, and in such cases the article shall be released under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode" rel="nofollow">Creative Commons 1 Public Domain Dedication waiver</a> CC0 1.0 Universal.</p> <h3>Copyright<a id="Z5"></a></h3> <p>Copyright for articles published in ESNBU are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. Authors retain full publishing rights and are encouraged to upload their work to institutional repositories, social academic networking sites, etc. ESNBU is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> <h3>Exceptions to copyright policy<a id="Z6"></a></h3> <p>Occasionally ESNBU may co-publish articles jointly with other publishers, and different licensing conditions may then apply.</p> englishstudies@nbu.bg (Boris Naimushin) englishstudies@nbu.bg (Stan Bogdanov, Managing Editor) Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Contents http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/561 <p>Table of Contents, Volume 7, Issue 2, 2021</p> ESNBU Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/561 Tue, 21 Dec 2021 22:14:56 +0000 Expressing Lesser Relevance in Academic Conference Presentations http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/562 <p>While marking importance and relevance in academic discourse has been a widely researched topic, markers of lesser significance have so far been understudied. The article therefore focuses on some of the discoursal means of expressing lesser importance in conference presentations. The corpus of the study comprises recordings of 20 presentations in English at international linguistics conferences by speakers of various cultural and linguistic backgrounds. The methodology follows Deroey and Taverniers’s (2012) study of lecture discourse, whereby depending on the way lesser importance is expressed, the markers are grouped under five categories. Their methodology is checked against the data provided by the transcriptions of the conference recordings to ascertain the extent to which it is applicable to other spoken academic genres. The ultimate objective is to provide steppingstones for interpreting information and distinguishing between what is important and relevant and less so in conference presentations, as well as for the identification of presenters’ motivation for employing this type of metadiscourse.</p> Diana Yankova, Irena Vassileva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/562 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Implicit Arguments in Ugandan English http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/563 <p>In standard British/American English, some transitive verbs, which are ontologically specified for objects, may be used with the objects not overtly expressed (for example, leave), while other transitive verbs do not permit this syntactic behavior (for example, vacate). The former have been referred to as verbs that allow implicit arguments. This study shows that while verbs such as vacate do not ideally allow implicit arguments in standard British/American English, this is permitted in Ugandan English (a non-native variety), thereby highlighting structural asymmetries between British/American English and Ugandan English, owing mainly to substrate influence and analogization. The current study highlights those structural asymmetries and ultimately uncovers some characteristic features in the structural nativization process of English in Uganda, thereby contributing to the growing larger discourse meant to fill the gaps that had characterized World Englishes scholarship, where thorough delineations of Ugandan English have been virtually absent.</p> Bebwa Isingoma ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/563 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Since/Because Alternation: Insights from Clause Structures in Nigerian English http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/564 <p>The choice between&nbsp;<em>since</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>because</em>&nbsp;allows language users to provide rationality which is part of the cognitive functions of language. Different conditions have been shown to explicate this alternation, with little attention paid to the clausal weight. The present paper shows how expression of rationality is alternated between choosing a&nbsp;<em>since</em>&nbsp;or&nbsp;<em>because</em>, since both have the semantic capacity to do so, in certain contexts. The study uses a simple measurement method to show the extent to which clausal weight relates to this alternation. Relying on corpus data from a well-known variety representing Nigerian English, the present study shows that the choice between&nbsp;<em>since</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>because</em>&nbsp;is related to a number of factors such as the type of text producing the usages. With 1074 usages showing such interchangeable usages extracted from academic and media text types in written Nigerian English, it is shown that, at least in the variety under examination, the choice of&nbsp;<em>since</em>&nbsp;over&nbsp;<em>because</em>&nbsp;as a rationality expresser is scarce, and that overall pattern can be predicted on the basis of certain contexts including clausal weight and ordering pattern. The scarcity of&nbsp;<em>since</em>&nbsp;as a rationality expresser is perhaps a reflection of interference from the local languages, which do not have semantic equivalents.</p> Mayowa Akinlotan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/564 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Status of English in Morocco: Lessons from Spontaneous Debates in Social Media http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/519 <p>Morocco, a multilingual country with historical and geo-political legacies, has opened a hot debate on languages recently. Within this debate, this article investigates spontaneous comments in social media on languages in Morocco, especially adopting English as a first foreign language. It aims to bring this topic to the surface and thus discuss it in the light of research on language attitudes and language awareness. To do so, it analyses the reactions to texts about the declarations by the Minister of Higher Education shared in social networks and sites. The data consisting of 2,018 comments is classified according to 12 frequent patterns whose frequencies are calculated. The findings show that most of Moroccans have positive attitudes towards English while some show opposing reactions towards French. These participants hold ambivalent opinions about the rest of languages used in Morocco; however, they tend to insist on Morocco having a clear language policy which, seemingly, prioritises the mother tongues, Arabic and Amazigh. The discussions show that some investigated reactions are mitigated as they may be illusionary.</p> Abdelmajid Bouziane, Mohamed Saoudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/519 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 'My Name to me a Sadness Wears': Self and Other According to 'Diary by E. B. B.' http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/565 <p>This paper dwells on the issue of selfhood in Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s&nbsp;<em>Diary</em>&nbsp;(1831 – 1832). It explores individuation against three major presences in the poetess’s life: her father (and family), Hugh Stuart Boyd, and literature. The employed strategy of research includes a phenomenological (interspersed with feminist touches) focus on select excerpts from the&nbsp;<em>Diary</em>&nbsp;which reveal the writer’s concern for&nbsp;<em>Self</em>&nbsp;as the recognition of the priority of a precursory&nbsp;<em>Other</em>. Observations are made on the limits of human perception, time and space as human variables, the ontological essence of interpretation, and memory as a premise for cognizing life as care. A rare example of prose-fiction in the poetess’s oeuvre, her diary could be read as an instance of simultaneous self-nullification and self-affirmation, which offers possibilities for a dialectical definition of female genius as dialogue through narrative.</p> Yana Rowland ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/565 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dismemberment of Kathleen’s Psyche in Joyce Carol Oates’s 'The Rise of Life on Earth' http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/566 <p>Postmodern literary texts have been exploring characters that are whimsically strange. The tacit plots in the postmodern textual space enable the writers to construct and manifest the mental space of the characters in the textual world. The Rise of Life on Earth written by Joyce Carol Oates concocts the emotional estrangement of the protagonist, Kathleen Hennessy. Decrypting the text amplifies the unabating efforts of Kathleen to survive in a world that has been portrayed as a larger, repressive and pernicious family. Her masquerade to be a shy, passive and well-behaved girl hides the menacing vengeance that has culminated as a result of abuses and afflictions. Her mental spaces are constructed during the course of narration. This paper purports to scrutinize the fragmented psyche of Kathleen and the conceptual integration of mental space and textual space that replicates both social and individualistic reality and expands the understanding of Oates’ text.</p> Kulamangalam Thiagarajan Tamilmani, Rathinasamy Nagalakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/566 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Counter Class and Counter Identity: Confrontations of Power in Tony Harrison's Poetry http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/567 <p>Tony Harrison is a contemporary British author whose poetry is highly influential in encountering the issue of identity and class struggles. As a working-class student, Harrison was subject to prejudice and discrimination for his working-class accent. This paper investigates two of his highly admired poems, “On Not Being Milton” and “Them &amp;&nbsp;<a href="https://esnbu.org/index.php?wiki=uz">uz</a>” from a cultural standpoint, mainly concentrated on John Fiske’s theory of power and language. The role of language in the context of his poems is probed. The multiaccentuality of language is represented in his poetry and these two poems become the site of struggle for the imperialising and the localising power. It is intended to illuminate the sought space of identity which Harrison is constantly referring to as a member of the English working-class society. Lastly, the social and personal relationship between Harrison and Milton has been explored positing Harrison in a transcendental context in his relationship with Milton.</p> Younes Poorghorban ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/567 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Mind's Eye: Picture as Narrative in Thomas Hardy's 'A Pair of Blue Eyes' http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/568 <p>This paper focuses on Thomas Hardy’s A Pair of Blue Eyes in discussing certain peculiarities of narration. The numerous descriptions of people and scenes in the book are examined as basic building blocks used by the architecturally trained novelist to carry vital narrative information. This decision is approached by way of utilising ideas from the realms of phenomenology, cinema and photographic theory to prove that in addition to carrying aesthetic merits, Hardy’s descriptions are intricate data containers that reflect how the human mind processes experience.</p> Dimitar Karamitev ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/568 Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000