English Studies at NBU http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU <p><strong>English Studies at NBU (ESNBU)</strong> is an entirely open access, double-blind peer reviewed academic journal published by the Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures, New Bulgarian University in two issues per year, June and December, in print and online. <br>ESNBU welcomes original research articles, book reviews, discussion contributions and other forms of analysis and comment encompassing all aspects of English Studies and English for professional communication and the creative professions. Manuscripts are accepted in English. Translations of published articles are generally not accepted.</p> <p>ESNBU is indexed in <a href="http://mjl.clarivate.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;ISSN=2367-5705">Web of Science</a>, <a href="http://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">CEEOL</a>, MLA,&nbsp;<a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2367-8704">DOAJ</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=488379">ERIH PLUS</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2367-5705">Crossref</a>, <a href="https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=55795">RSCI</a>&nbsp;(РИНЦ), EBSCO,&nbsp;<a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2367-8704">ROAD</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=1104295822">ZDB</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://ezb.uni-regensburg.de/searchres.phtml?bibid=AAAAA&amp;colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=2367-8704">EZB</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=esnbu&amp;name=&amp;oaboost=1&amp;newsearch=1&amp;refid=dcbasen">BASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/find?keyword=English%20Studies%20at%20NBU">OpenAIRE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://idiscover.lib.cam.ac.uk/primo-explore/search?query=any,contains,2367-8704&amp;tab=online_res&amp;search_scope=SCOP_ONLINE&amp;vid=44CAM_PROD&amp;lang=en_US&amp;offset=0">iDiscover</a>,&nbsp;Brill&nbsp;<a href="https://bibliographies.brillonline.com/search?s.q=%222367-5705%22&amp;s.f.s2_parent=s.f.book.linguistic-bibliography">Linguistic Bibliography</a>, and evaliated by&nbsp;<a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/2367-5705">MIAR</a>...<a href="https://esnbu.org/">more</a></p> <p>English Studies at NBU is archived in the&nbsp;<a href="https://plus.bg.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/nbkm/1275724772">Bulgarian National Library</a>&nbsp;“St. St. Cyril and Methodius” (both print and digital full text formats),&nbsp;<a href="https://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">Central and Eastern European Online Library</a>&nbsp;(CEEOL) (digital, full text),&nbsp;<a href="https://catalog.loc.gov/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=20878817">The Library of Congress</a>&nbsp;(both print and digital),&nbsp;The British Library (both print and digital)</p> New Bulgarian University en-US English Studies at NBU 2367-5705 <p>All published articles in the ESNBU are licensed under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0" rel="nofollow">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial</a> 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.<br> <br> <img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/by-nc.png" alt=""><br> <br> In other words, under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license users are free to<br> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format<br> Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material<br> <br> Under the following terms:<br> <br> <img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/attrib.gif" alt=""><strong>Attribution</strong> (by) - All CC licenses require that others who use your work in any way must give you credit the way you request, but not in a way that suggests you endorse them or their use. If they want to use your work without giving you credit or for endorsement purposes, they must get your permission first.<br> <br> <img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/noncomm.gif" alt=""><strong>NonCommercial</strong> (nc) - You let others copy, distribute, display, perform, and modify and use your work for any purpose other than commercially unless they get your permission first.<br> <br> If the article is to be used for commercial purposes, we suggest authors be contacted by email.<br> <br> If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, authors will notify ESNBU at the time of submission, and in such cases the article shall be released under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode" rel="nofollow">Creative Commons 1 Public Domain Dedication waiver</a> CC0 1.0 Universal.</p> <h3>Copyright<a id="Z5"></a></h3> <p>Copyright for articles published in ESNBU are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. Authors retain full publishing rights and are encouraged to upload their work to institutional repositories, social academic networking sites, etc. ESNBU is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> <h3>Exceptions to copyright policy<a id="Z6"></a></h3> <p>Occasionally ESNBU may co-publish articles jointly with other publishers, and different licensing conditions may then apply.</p> Contents http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/317 <p>Table of Contents, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2020</p> ESNBU Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 1 1 About the journal http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/316 <p><strong>About the journal</strong></p> <p><strong>Aims &amp; scope<br></strong>English Studies at NBU (ESNBU) is an entirely open access, double-blind peer reviewed academic journal published by the Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures, New Bulgarian University in two issues per year, June and December, in print and online.</p> <p>ESNBU welcomes original research articles, book reviews, discussion contributions and other forms of analysis and comment encompassing all aspects of English Studies and English for professional communication and the creative professions. Manuscripts are accepted in English. Translations of published articles are generally not accepted.</p> <p><strong>Submission and fees<br></strong>Submissions are accepted from all researchers; authors do not need to have a connection to New Bulgarian University to publish in ESNBU.</p> <p>There are <strong>no submission fees </strong>or<strong> publication charges</strong> for authors.</p> <p><strong>Copyright<br></strong>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).</p> <p><strong>Abstracting and Indexing<br></strong><a href="http://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">CEEOL</a> - Central and Eastern European Online Library<br><a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=488379">ERIH PLUS</a> - European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences<br><a href="https://www.mla.org/content/download/88396/2222979/All-Indexed-Journal-Titles.xlsx">MLA</a> - Directory of Periodicals and MLA International Bibliography<br><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2367-8704">ROAD</a> - Directory of Open Access Scholarly Resources<br><a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/find?keyword=English%20Studies%20at%20NBU">OpenAIRE</a><br><a href="http://mjl.clarivate.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;ISSN=2367-5705">WoS Core Collection</a> (ESCI) - Web of Science Emerging Sources Citation Index<br><a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2367-8704">DOAJ</a> - Directory of Open Access Journals<br><a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2367-5705">Crossref</a> member<br>Brill <a href="https://bibliographies.brillonline.com/search?s.q=%222367-5705%22&amp;s.f.s2_parent=s.f.book.linguistic-bibliography">Linguistic Bibliography</a><br>EBSCO<br>ICI Index Copernicus - <a href="https://journals.indexcopernicus.com/search/details?id=50139">Journals Master list database</a><br><a href="https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=55795">RSCI</a> Core - Russian Science Citation Index (РИНЦ)<br><a href="http://eng.scholar.cnki.net/result.aspx?q=English+Studies+at+NBU&amp;rt=Journal">CNKI SCHOLAR</a> (CNKI) China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database<br><a href="https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=1104295822">ZDB</a> - Zeitschriften Datenbank<br><a href="http://ezb.uni-regensburg.de/searchres.phtml?bibid=AAAAA&amp;colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=2367-8704">EZB</a> - Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek<br><a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=esnbu&amp;name=&amp;oaboost=1&amp;newsearch=1&amp;refid=dcbasen">BASE</a> (Bielefeld Academic Search Engine)<br><a href="https://idiscover.lib.cam.ac.uk/primo-explore/search?query=any,contains,2367-8704&amp;tab=online_res&amp;search_scope=SCOP_ONLINE&amp;vid=44CAM_PROD&amp;lang=en_US&amp;offset=0">iDiscover</a>, the University of Cambridge’s search and discovery system<br><a href="https://opac.eui.eu/client/en_GB/default/search/results?ln=en_GB&amp;te=ILS&amp;te=-1517841901&amp;q=2367-8704">European University Institute</a> Articles+<br> Evaluated by <a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/2367-5705">MIAR</a> - Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals</p> <p><strong>Archiving</strong><br>English Studies at NBU is archived in:<br>-<a href="https://plus.bg.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/nbkm/1275724772">Bulgarian National Library</a> “St. St. Cyril and Methodius” (both print and digital full text formats)<br>-<a href="https://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">Central and Eastern European Online Library</a>&nbsp;(CEEOL) (digital, full text).<br>-<a href="https://lccn.loc.gov/2019215163">The Library of Congress</a> (both print and digital from Vol4, Issue 2, 2018)<br>-The British Library (both print and digital from Vol4, Issue 2, 2018)</p> ESNBU Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 2 2 Editor's Message http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/315 <p>Editor's Message</p> Stanislav Bogdanov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 3 3 Editor's Note: Garuba, I. O. (2019). The Ageing Poet and Death Anxiety: Art as Existential Therapy in John Pepper Clark’s Of Sleep and Old Age. English Studies at NBU, 5(2), 268-283. DOI 10.33919/esnbu.19.2.5 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/314 <p>For the benefit of our readers, we are publishing this Editor's Note to assert that the version published on 30 December 2019 in English Studies at NBU, Volume 5, Issue 2, 2019, is the authoritative and only version of record.</p> Stanislav Bogdanov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 4 4 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.0 The Motivation of University Students of International Relations to Learn English http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/306 <p>This article reports on the findings of a study investigating the motivation of Bulgarian undergraduates of International Relations to learn English as a second language (L2). First, we consider language learning motivation in the context of three influential theoretical developments in research on motivation. Then, we report on a small-scale survey aiming to define the motivational profile of students of International Relations through the lens of the L2 Motivational Self System. The analysis of the survey data reveals similarities with findings of previous research as regards the favourable attitude towards English language learning, the prominent role of the ideal L2 self in the motivational pattern, and some doubt over the relation between the ought-to L2 self and the intended learning effort. The study results also indicate relations between travel orientation and the ought-to L2 self, and between the two types of instrumental motivation which have not been reported in previous research. These motivation peculiarities are explained through the specifics of the surveyed group that refer to students’ aspirations and potential careers in international relations.</p> Zarina Markova Dessislava Yaneva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 5 28 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.1 English Mnemonic Lexicon: Constituent Structure and Verbalization Potential http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/307 <p>This paper presents a study of the system of lexical devices used by English speakers to verbalize their personal memory experiences. The approach presented in the paper presupposes inclusion of non-narrative structures into the spectrum of language forms conveying mnemonic meanings and extends the latter so as to encompass the meanings of encoding, storage, retrieval and loss. The research is based on the hypothesis that lexical units expressing memory-related meanings in English constitute a specifically organized system. A variety of communicative contexts representing mnemonic situations are analyzed as to develop a typology of memory verbalizers in English, estimate their functional potential and role in objectifying personal memory experiences on the lexical level. The results confirm the original hypothesis and suggest that mnemonic lexicon as a linguistic reflection of the mnemonic faculty is an important and largely understudied element of the language – memory system<em>. </em></p> Irina Tivyaeva Olga Syomina ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 29 68 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.2 Creating the Authorial Self in Academic Texts: Evidence From the Expert’s Style of Writing http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/308 <p>This paper reports on an analysis of stance expressions in a 439,490-word corpus of Ken Hyland’s academic prose, encompassing 64 single-authored texts from journals, edited collections and his own monographs. Using WordSmith Tools 6.0, the study aims to find out how this expert academic writer creates his authorial self through stance mechanisms. The results reveal that Hyland’s authorial participation in his discourse is mostly manifested through hedges, somewhat less definitely through boosters, but relatively infrequently by attitude markers and self-mention. The choice of the specific stance devices indicates a preference for detached objectivity when formulating empirically verifiable propositions and a shift towards subjectivity when referring to discourse acts and research methodology. These findings contribute to our understanding of stance-taking expertise in applied linguistics and may thus assist novice writers in the field in a more effective management of their own performance of self in academic prose.</p> Tatiana Szczygłowska ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 69 94 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.3 Framing the Identity of an Ideal Primary School Teacher of English http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/309 <p>The article presents a study that aimed to examine how primary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) framed the identity of an ideal EFL teacher. The specific research aim was to identify and classify frames associated with the identity of an EFL primary school teacher in the corpus of reflective essays of approximately 1000 words about an ideal EFL teacher in Norwegian primary school contexts written by 32 Norwegian in-service primary school EFL teachers. It was hypothesised that the participants’ framing would be reflective of the identity of an ideal EFL teacher in Norway. The corpus of the participants’ essays was analysed in accordance with the framing methodology developed by Entman (1993) and Dahl (2015). The results of the framing analysis indicated that the participants in the study framed the identity of an ideal EFL teacher via frames associated with future ideal selves, ought-to selves, the identity of their former EFL teachers, and the identity of an ideal EFL teacher as a fictional character. The study implications would be beneficial to pre-service and current in-service EFL teachers and teacher-trainers alike, who could treat the results as a collective “portrait” of an ideal EFL teacher.</p> Oleksandr Kapranov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-08 2020-06-08 6 1 95 110 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.4 A Lost Lady: A Narrative of Manifest Destiny and Neocolonialism http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/310 <p>The greatly examined story of <em>A Lost Lady</em> usually depicts Mrs. Forrester’s success in meeting and adapting to the challenges of a changing world, a world characterized by materialism and self-fulfilment. However, the overlooked story, one far more disturbing than the privileged story in the text, is the narrative of oppressed groups of people of other races and the lower class. Drawing on some aspects of postcolonial theory, this paper explores Willa Cather’s own reactions to real changes in her society, to the waning power of imperialism, and of her nostalgic longing for the western prairies of her youth, without showing any sympathy for the dispossessed Native Americans and other oppressed races. It will also disclose the unmistakable colonial overtones, which remarkably resonate with the common discourse of “Manifest Destiny” during the time period of American expansion to the Wild West.</p> Ammar Aqeeli ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 111 126 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.5 The Politics and Aesthetics of Storytelling in Diana Abu-Jaber’s Crescent: A Strategic Implementation of an Old Folkloric Arab Tradition http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/311 <p>This paper discusses the politics and multi-functionality of storytelling in Diana Abu-Jaber’s novel <em>Crescent</em> (2003). I argue that the strategic use of storytelling places <em>Crescent </em>as a complex hybrid text that projects the nature, and development, of Arab American literature in the contemporary era. In addition to having the practice of storytelling as an apparatus to project identity in <em>Crescent</em>, Abu-Jaber re-appropriates its empowered status in Arab culture as well as politicizes its image in the mind of her readers. Besides employing critical and analytical approaches to the novel, this paper relies on arguments and perspectives of prominent postcolonial and literary critics and theorists such as Edward Said, Suzanne Keen, Walter Benjamin, and Samaya Sami Sabry, to name a few.</p> Ishak Berrebbah ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 127 144 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.6 Traumas of Roots and Extinction in the 20th Century Literature of Empire: The Mirror Principle in Marguerite Duras’ India Cycle (1964-71) and Ahmed Ali’s Twilight in Delhi (1940) http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/313 <p>This article comparatively analyses Marguerite Duras’ <em>India Cycle</em> and Ahmed Ali’s <em>Twilight in Delhi</em>. A Mirror Principle centres on ‘emptiness’, synthesising elements of Marxism and Buddhism. A new optic is created for understanding 1930s Indian nationalism, including Dalit and national leader Ambedkar, Tagorian “composite culture”, Mohammed Iqbal, and Islam and gender in northern India. The Mirror Principle juxtaposes Heideggerian ‘repetition’ and Marxian ‘dialectics’ as divergent anti-colonial paths. Duras and Ali are linked by a common Proustian problematic of memory and ephemerality. They revolutionize the Proustian tradition to create a new literary genre in oneiric socialism. The article analyses trauma, in the French Resistance and the 1857 rebellion, and literary reconstructions of traditional roots in their wake, with differing nation-making ramifications.</p> Tadd Graham Fernée ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 145 172 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.7 The 23rd Language: Official EU Status for Irish as Portrayed in the Republic of Ireland's English-Language Press http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/312 <p>Irish became the 23<sup>rd</sup> official language of the European Union (EU) in 2007. Due to a lack of qualified translators and interpreters, it is currently subject to a derogation which restricts its use in the EU institutions, a situation which aims to be remedied by 2022. Yet the Irish language represents a unique case even within the Republic of Ireland itself. Under British rule, centuries of repression confined its usage to the rural fringes of society, a state of affairs that an independent Ireland has attempted to improve with limited success. This article analyses how recognition of official EU status for Irish has been depicted in the Republic of Ireland’s English-language print media. By performing a qualitative content analysis of the online archives of the country’s three major English-language newspapers, the aim is to illustrate how official EU status for Irish has been portrayed, paying specific attention to political, cultural and economic factors.</p> Antony Hoyte-West ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 6 1 173 183 10.33919/esnbu.20.1.8