English Studies at NBU http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU <p><strong>English Studies at NBU (ESNBU)</strong> is an entirely open access, double-blind peer reviewed academic journal published by the Department of Foreign Languages and Cultures, New Bulgarian University in two issues per year, June and December, in print and online. <br>ESNBU welcomes original research articles, book reviews, discussion contributions and other forms of analysis and comment encompassing all aspects of English Studies and English for professional communication and the creative professions. Manuscripts are accepted in English. Translations of published articles are generally not accepted.</p> <p>ESNBU is indexed in <a href="http://mjl.clarivate.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jlresults.cgi?PC=MASTER&amp;ISSN=2367-5705">Web of Science</a>, <a href="http://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">CEEOL</a>, MLA,&nbsp;<a href="https://doaj.org/toc/2367-8704">DOAJ</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://dbh.nsd.uib.no/publiseringskanaler/erihplus/periodical/info.action?id=488379">ERIH PLUS</a>, <a href="https://search.crossref.org/?q=2367-5705">Crossref</a>, <a href="https://elibrary.ru/title_about.asp?id=55795">RSCI</a>&nbsp;(РИНЦ), EBSCO,&nbsp;<a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2367-8704">ROAD</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://zdb-katalog.de/title.xhtml?idn=1104295822">ZDB</a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://ezb.uni-regensburg.de/searchres.phtml?bibid=AAAAA&amp;colors=7&amp;lang=de&amp;jq_type1=QS&amp;jq_term1=2367-8704">EZB</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=esnbu&amp;name=&amp;oaboost=1&amp;newsearch=1&amp;refid=dcbasen">BASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/find?keyword=English%20Studies%20at%20NBU">OpenAIRE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="https://idiscover.lib.cam.ac.uk/primo-explore/search?query=any,contains,2367-8704&amp;tab=online_res&amp;search_scope=SCOP_ONLINE&amp;vid=44CAM_PROD&amp;lang=en_US&amp;offset=0">iDiscover</a>,&nbsp;Brill&nbsp;<a href="https://bibliographies.brillonline.com/search?s.q=%222367-5705%22&amp;s.f.s2_parent=s.f.book.linguistic-bibliography">Linguistic Bibliography</a>, and evaliated by&nbsp;<a href="http://miar.ub.edu/issn/2367-5705">MIAR</a>...<a href="https://esnbu.org/">more</a></p> <p>English Studies at NBU is archived in the&nbsp;<a href="https://plus.bg.cobiss.net/opac7/bib/nbkm/1275724772">Bulgarian National Library</a>&nbsp;“St. St. Cyril and Methodius” (both print and digital full text formats),&nbsp;<a href="https://www.ceeol.com/search/journal-detail?id=1226">Central and Eastern European Online Library</a>&nbsp;(CEEOL) (digital, full text),&nbsp;<a href="https://catalog.loc.gov/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=20878817">The Library of Congress</a>&nbsp;(both print and digital),&nbsp;The British Library (both print and digital)</p> New Bulgarian University en-US English Studies at NBU 2367-5705 <p>All published articles in the ESNBU are licensed under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0" rel="nofollow">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial</a> 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.<br><br> In other words, under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license users are free to<br> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format<br> Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material<br> <br> Under the following terms:</p> <p><img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/attrib.gif" alt=""><strong>Attribution</strong> (by) - All CC licenses require that others who use your work in any way must give you credit the way you request, but not in a way that suggests you endorse them or their use. If they want to use your work without giving you credit or for endorsement purposes, they must get your permission first.<br> <br> <img class="wikiimage" src="http://esnbu.org/data/files/noncomm.gif" alt=""><strong>NonCommercial</strong> (nc) - You let others copy, distribute, display, perform, and modify and use your work for any purpose other than commercially unless they get your permission first.<br> <br> If the article is to be used for commercial purposes, we suggest authors be contacted by email.<br> <br> If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, authors will notify ESNBU at the time of submission, and in such cases the article shall be released under the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/legalcode" rel="nofollow">Creative Commons 1 Public Domain Dedication waiver</a> CC0 1.0 Universal.</p> <h3>Copyright<a id="Z5"></a></h3> <p>Copyright for articles published in ESNBU are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. Authors retain full publishing rights and are encouraged to upload their work to institutional repositories, social academic networking sites, etc. ESNBU is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work. It is the author's responsibility to bring an infringement action if so desired by the author.</p> <h3>Exceptions to copyright policy<a id="Z6"></a></h3> <p>Occasionally ESNBU may co-publish articles jointly with other publishers, and different licensing conditions may then apply.</p> Contents http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/427 <p>Table of Contents, Volume 6, Issue 2, 2020</p> ESNBU Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 185 185 Reviewers for 2020, Volume 6, Issue 1 and Issue 2 http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/428 <p>We thank our reviewers for&nbsp;2020, Volume 6, Issue 1 and Issue 2</p> ESNBU Editorial Board ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 186 186 2020 in Review and Call for Internal Auditor Nominations http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/426 <p><strong>2020 in Review and Call for Internal Auditor Nominations</strong></p> <p>Do our practices conform to our guiding principles and the promises we have set for ourselves? The biggest step forward for the journal is the introduction of an <a href="https://esnbu.org/index.php?wiki=ias">Internal Audit System</a>, which you can read in detail on our web site. We believe it can considerably raise the quality of the journal and its transparency progressively over time.</p> <p>The Internal Audit System aims to evaluate the work of the journal in applying its policies and procedures. The overall evaluation comprises a quality analysis of the current state-of-affairs of the journal. This relates to evaluating performance quality in editorial duties, while providing recommendations for quality improvement in the editorial work.</p> <p>The specific aim of the audit is to identify strengths and weaknesses, which consequently will be used to devise an action plan for improvement. <a href="https://app.mailerlite.com/r0h8c6">Nominations for an Internal Auditor</a> are made until 31<sup>st</sup> December 2020, and the elections will be held in the first week of January 2021.</p> Stan Bogdanov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 188 188 Translated Plagiarism in Academic Discourse http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/418 <p>Cross-language plagiarism is increasingly being accorded the interest of academics, but it is still an underresearched area. Rather than displaying linguistic similarity or identity of lexemes, phrases or grammatical structures within one language, translated plagiarism is viewed as the theft of ideas involving two languages. Two instances of translated plagiarism will be discussed - lifting a text from language A, translating it in language B to reuse it as one’s own text, and back-translation: lifting a text verbatim from language A, translating into language B and then re-translating back into language A. The emphasis will be on non-standard structures and inappropriate linguistic choices violating source language norms which could go some way towards assisting in the detection of translated plagiarism, a task heretofore not resolved either by linguists or by computer specialists. The topic is of seminal importance to non-English speaking academic contexts.</p> Diana Yankova ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 189 200 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.1 Enhancing Student Motivation in ESP by Increasing the Level of Engagement: A Proposed Model http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/419 <p>The article considers the opportunity to enhance student motivation in the acquisition of English for specific purposes by increasing the level of learner engagement. The authors propose to use an interdisciplinary approach by applying tools that have been approved in marketing theory and practice for the management of consumer involvement in the purchasing process and adapting them to teaching ESP to increase course effectiveness. Marketing literature analysis reveals two important points. The first one is that in classical marketing, the concepts of enduring involvement and situational involvement are used and combined together to form a complex consumer response. In modern marketing, this complex response is called consumer engagement. The second point is that situational involvement plays a key role in shaping the complex consumer response. The authors' suggestion is to use situational involvement as the major tool for boosting student motivation taking into consideration factors such as the specific features of the new generations and the growing use of modern technologies in everyday communication and learning. A description of model tasks is given to exemplify their interdisciplinary nature as well as observations related to their use in class supplemented by student feedback.</p> Albena Stefanova Georgi Zabunov ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 201 216 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.2 Evaluating the Performance of a New Text Rhythm Analysis Tool http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/420 <p>The paper assesses and evaluates the performance of the ProseRhythmDetector (PRD) Text Rhythm Analysis Tool. The research is a case study of 50 English and 50 Russian fictional texts (approximately 88,000 words each) from the 19th to the 21st century. The paper assesses the PRD tool accuracy in detecting stylistic devices containing repetition in their structure such as&nbsp;<em>diacope, epanalepsis, anaphora, epiphora, symploce, epizeuxis, anadiplosis</em>, and&nbsp;<em>polysyndeton</em>. The article ends by discussing common errors, analysing disputable cases and highlighting the use of the tool for author and idiolect identification.</p> Elena Boychuk Ksenia Lagutina Inna Vorontsova Elena Mishenkina Olga Belyayeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 217 232 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.3 Differences in Research Abstracts written in Arabic, French, and English http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/421 <p>The proliferation of publications, mainly the digital ones, makes it necessary to write well-structured abstracts which help readers gauge the relevance of articles and thus attract a wider readership. This article investigates whether abstracts written in three languages, namely Arabic, French and English, follow the same patterns within or across languages. It compares 112 abstracts in the areas of (applied) linguistics. The English abstracts include 36 research article (RA) abstracts from an Arab journal mostly written by non-natives and 10 by native speakers from British universities. Those produced in French are 36 divided into two sets, 23 from North African journals and the remaining 13 from French journals. The Arabic abstracts consist of 30 abstracts, 15 from North African journals mainly from Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco and the other 15 from the Middle East with a focus on Qatari and Saudi texts. Results emanating from the frequency of moves show that the abstracts written in English by natives and non-natives and those produced in Arabic by Middle Eastern writers show conformity with the existing conventions of abstract writing in English. However, those from North Africa, be they Arabic or French, do not share any specific patterns which can be attributed to the language in which they are written. Further research is needed to check whether abstract writing is part of the academic writing curriculum in these two latter languages.</p> Abdelmajid Bouziane Fatima Ezzahra Metkal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 233 248 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.4 Layered Temporalities - Between Modernism and Postmodernism - in Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Lowland http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/425 <p>The discussion approaches Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel <em>The Lowland</em>, aiming to trace the author’s positioning in relation to modern and postmodern assumptions. The argument follows the main character’s (Gauri) transnational trajectory, as she crosses frontiers in a journey that also spans large temporal dimensions. Gauri’s unconventional choices are to be interpreted in relation with her permanent interest in the nature of time that is also a part of her doctoral research in philosophy. Gauri’s professional goals and her personal destiny appear strongly conditioned by the political context of her pre-emigration days, i.e. the Naxalite movement. All the above suggest that <em>The Lowland</em> can be read as a novel with an implied message about the grand narrative of history in relation to time perception and the possibility of (female) identity formation. Whether Lahiri’s approach to these themes echoes a predominantly (post)modern outlook is the focus of the present analysis.</p> Adriana-Elena Stoican ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 249 264 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.5 London's Burning: Structuralist Readings of the Urban Inferno in the 1950's British Literature of Multi-culturalism http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/422 <p>This article examines a literary triangle treating a modern re-imagining of the Dantean Inferno in Caribbean migrant experience. Sam Selvon’s The Lonely Londoners advanced a stylistic and intellectual revolution in post-World War II British literature, inspiring Colin MacInnes’ Absolute Beginners in the founding literary texts of contemporary British multi-cultural society. It followed the template of Jean Rhys Voyage in the Dark. We must read these complex texts to understand the conflicted multi-cultural society that Britain has become today: they deal with identity and solidarity, atomisation and commodification, Empire and capitalism, while throwing light on the most recent advances in historical and theoretical scholarship by pioneers such as Olivette Otele and Reni Eddo-Lodge. Moreover, these texts throw new light on unanswered Structuralist and Post-Structuralist debates from Emile Durkheim to Martin Heidegger. This article examines the intersectionality of class, gender and race within both the national British framework of post-war capitalism and the wider colonial heritage of slavery and forced labour, highlighting voices who articulated an ideal of multi-cultural humanism that remains crucial today.</p> Tad Graham Fernée ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 265 294 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.6 Moroccan Students’ Attitudes Towards Local and Foreign Languages: The Role of Self-Directed and Language Policy Forces http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/423 <p>Ths article contributes to the hot debate on language preferences and choice at schools and society at large in Morocco from an empirical perspective. It investigates the Moroccan students’ attitudes towards the languages they use in their daily interactions and those that are widely used in the Moroccan education system and attempts to explain whether these attitudes are driven by intrinsic forces or by the language policy orientations set by decision makers. To do so, 1,477 respondents belonging to different school levels and disciplines completed a survey about their frequency of use and mastery of languages, as well as their preferences of language use in the future. Findings show that Moroccan students have positive attitudes towards all languages and would like to use foreign languages for instrumental purposes. They also show that such positive attitudes do not depend on the level of mastery of these languages, nor on their use as mediums of instruction or communication. The findings imply that attitudes towards languages in Morocco are rooted in factors beyond the official policy orientations.</p> Abdelmajid Bouziane ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 295 320 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.7 The Intertextual Use of Greek Mythology in Agatha Christie’s Detective Fiction http://ojs.nbu.bg/ojs/index.php/ESNBU/article/view/424 <p>This study investigates the intertextual use of Greek mythology in Agatha Christie’s short stories&nbsp;<em>Philomel Cottage, The Face of Helen</em>, and&nbsp;<em>The Oracle at Delphi</em>, a short story collection&nbsp;<em>The Labours of Hercules</em>, and a novel,&nbsp;<em>Nemesis</em>. The results of this research based on the hermeneutical and comparative methods reveal that A. Christie’s intertextual formula developed over time. In her early works, allusions were based on characters' appearances and functions as well as on the use of motifs and themes from Greek myths. Later on, she turned to using allusory character names; this would mislead her readers who thought they already knew the formula of her stories. Although not a postmodern writer, A. Christie enjoyed playing games of allusion with her readers. She wanted them not only to solve a case but also to discover and interpret the intertextual references.</p> Tatiana Ternopol ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 6 2 321 331 10.33919/esnbu.20.2.8